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CONELRAD would like to thank the many people and institutions who aided our research into the rich history of the Daisy spot. When we began this project a year ago, we never could have dreamed how much documentary material existed concerning a mere sixty seconds of film. First and foremost, Michael Ravnitzky, the indefatigable Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) expert, must be thanked for cajoling CONELRAD into revisiting its long dormant goal of tracking down the Daisy girl. Were it not for Mr. Ravnitzky's persistence and encouragement it is unlikely this feature ever would have been started. It was in seeking out the Daisy girl, after all, that led us to eventually dig deeper into the "hidden" back-story of the ad. Mr. Ravnitzky must also be thanked for providing significant research assistance on this feature.

Our sincere gratitude is also extended to Anton Schwartz, Tony Schwartz's son, who helped get the ball rolling by providing us with the elusive identity of the Daisy girl herself. Forrest Gray, Tony Schwartz's assistant, was extremely helpful in providing many audio, video, graphic and textual records. Due to health concerns, Mr. Schwartz himself could not be interviewed for this feature. While CONELRAD would have loved to have spoken to the media guru, his comments on his life and work are so well represented in the public record that a current interview was not as critical as it might have otherwise been.

Sidney Myers, the Art Director for the Daisy spot, could not have been any more generous with his time. His recollections were invaluable and essential to this feature. Bernice Lee, the wife of the late Stanley R. Lee (the credited copywriter for the Daisy spot) was kind enough to speak with us regarding the life and work of her husband. Peggy B. Graham provided some interesting biographical details on her late husband James H. Graham, the Doyle Dane Bernbach executive in charge of the 1964 Democratic National Committee account. Thanks also to Ann M. Barton, who was account executive James H. Graham's secretary during the heady days of DDB's 1964 campaign work and who provided CONELRAD with a fascinating exchange of letters with the New Yorker magazine that can be viewed on the Daisy Documents page. Columbia University's Edward Mendelson offered welcome direction on the poet W.H. Auden (whose poem "September 1, 1939" informs a critical line in the Daisy spot). 1964 Johnson campaign veterans Lloyd Wright and Bill Moyers provided CONELRAD with unique insights into how the campaign media apparatus worked.

The fine archivists at the Lyndon Baines Johnson Presidential Library and Museum provided CONELRAD with expert service and never lost their patience despite our many different requests for assistance. Locating the records of Doyle Dane Bernbach and other internal memos from the 1964 campaign at the LBJ Library opened a lot of doors in our understanding of the history of the ad. The Center for American History in Austin, Texas provided CONELRAD with copies of the personal papers of Aaron Ehrlich, the deceased producer of the Daisy spot. This enabled us to fill in some of the gaps concerning his role in the production of the commercial. Pat Sloan at DDB provided some fruitful leads that CONELRAD followed up on.

Special thanks to Austin resident and kindred spirit Connie A. Geerhart for zipping over to the LBJ Library for some last minute document gathering! And last, but certainly not least, we must thank Monique Corzilius, the Daisy Girl, for sitting down and speaking with CONELRAD's Bill Geerhart about her fascinating life. Cold War popular culture interviews do not get much more "sought after." It is all downhill from here unless Peter Sellers rises from the dead as Dr. Strangelove and calls CONELRAD on the hotline...

The following are the reference works relied upon by CONELRAD in researching the DAISY feature. For exact citations, please refer to the footnotes section in the main article.

Art Directors Club 1965 Annual

The Art of Writing Advertising (Chicago: Advertising Publications, 1965) by Denis Higgins

Evoked Recall (unpublished biography of Tony Schwartz) by Michael Dainard

Flawed Giant: Lyndon Johnson and his Times, 1961-1973 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998) by Robert Dallek

Glorious Disaster: Barry Goldwater's Campaign and the Origins of the Conservative Movement (New York: Basic Books, 2006) by J. William Middendorf II

Goldwater (New York: Doubleday, 1988) by Barry Goldwater with Jack Casserly

Grace and Power: The Private World of the Kennedy White House (New York: Random House, 2004) by Sallie Bedell Smith

Later Auden (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1999) by Edward Mendelson

Lyndon: An Oral Biography (New York: Ballentine Books, 1980) by Merle Miller

The Making of the President 1964 (New York: Atheneum Publishers, 1964) by Theodore H. White

Packaging the Presidency: A History and Criticism of Presidential Advertising (New York: Oxford University Press, 1984) by Kathleen Hall Jamieson

President Kennedy: Profile of Power (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1993) by Richard Reeves

Reaching for Glory: Lyndon Johnson's Secret White House Tapes, 1964-1965 (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2001) by Michael Beschloss

Remembering America: A Voice from the Sixties (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1988) by Richard N. Goodwin

The Responsive Chord (New York: Anchor Press / Doubleday, 1973) by Tony Schwartz

The Spot: The Rise of Political Advertising on Television, Third Edition (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1992) by Edwin Diamond and Stephen Bates

Twenty Ads That Shook the World: The Century's Most Groundbreaking Advertising and How it Changed Us All (New York: Crown Publishers, 2000) by James B. Twitchell

The Center for American History, University of Texas at Austin: The Aaron Ehrlich Collection

The Library of Congress (Manuscript Division): The Papers of Charles P. Taft

The Lyndon Baines Johnson Presidential Library and Museum: Daisy File; DNC II Files; Moyers and Valenti Files; Audio-Visual records

Presidential Campaign Activities of 1972 Senate Resolution 60: Hearings Before the Senate Committee on Presidential Campaign Activities of the United States Senate Ninety-Third Congress First Session: Watergate and Related Activities: Phase I: Watergate Investigation: Washington, D.C., June 27, 28, 29, and July 10, 1973: Book 4

The American Experience: LBJ (PBS, 1991)

CBS Productions Presents P.S.: "Daisy Spot and Birgitte Olsen" (Eye on People cable network, 1998)

Mr. Conservative: Goldwater on Goldwater (HBO, 2006)

"The 2000 Campaign: The Attack Ad; Infamous Political Commercial is Turned on Gore," New York Times, October 27, 2000 by Leslie Wayne

"Aaron Ehrlich Weds Miss Evalyn Frumkin," New York Times, May 8, 1971

"Back Page" column, Ad Day, February 24, 1989 by Sherrie Shamoon

"Are Political 'Spots' on TV Unfair?," U.S. News and World Report, September 28, 1964

"Barry Goldwater, GOP Hero, Dies," Washington Post, May 30, 1998 by Bart Barnes

"Barry Goldwater is Dead at 89," New York Times, May 30, 1998 by Adam Clymer

"Bill Moyers Holds a Mirror Up to America...," Los Angeles Times, November 12, 1989 by Jane Hall

"Brands Dems' A-Plea 'Slime,'" Chicago Tribune, September 17, 1964 by William Moore

"British Found a Way to Curb Vile Propaganda in Campaigns," Chicago Tribune (and syndicated), September 23, 1964 by William F. Buckley, Jr.

"Chairmen Clash Over Fairness Pledge," Washington Post, September 12, 1964 by Susann McBee

"Commercial Stars Learn It Pays to Advertise," Mansfield (Ohio) News Journal, November 29, 1972 by Leo Seligsohn

"Congressman Hits Democratic 'Fear Campaign,'" Chicago Tribune, September 22, 1964 by William Kling

"Conservative Pioneer Became Outcast," Arizona Republic, May 31, 1998 by Michael Murphy

"Democrat Drumfire: Publicists Seek to Tie Barry to 'Extremists,' Show Cool, Busy LBJ," Wall Street Journal, August 28, 1964 by Jerry Landauer

"Democrats' TV Ad Draws G.O.P. Rebuke," Chicago Tribune, September 13, 1964

"The Essential Auden," Los Angeles Times, March 4, 2007 by Christopher Hitchens

"For Dole Camp, Apocalypse as Metaphor," New York Times, August 27, 1996 by Katherine Q. Seelye

"Goldwater Backs Army Cut Abroad," Washington Post, October 25, 1963 by Chalmers M. Roberts

"Goldwater: Bloodied but Unbowed," Los Angeles Times (and syndicated), September 22, 1964 by James J. Kilpatrick

"Goldwater, In a Unity Bid...," New York Times, August 13, 1964 by Charles Mohr

"Goldwater Stresses He's for Peace," Winnipeg Free Press, October 2, 1964 by Robert Albright

"He Speaks for Courage," Paid (Goldwater) Advertisement, Los Angeles Times, November 1, 1964

"His Commercials Use L.I. as U.S.," (Sid Myers profile) New York Times, July 4, 1982 by Lawrence Van Gelder

"Hubert Raps TV Commercial," Chicago Tribune, September 21, 1964

"James E. Doyle is Dead at 86...," New York Times, March 7, 1989 by Glenn Fowler

James H. Graham Obituary, The AdCrafter (the bi-weekly publication of the Adcraft Club of Detroit, Michigan), May 19, 2006 by Bob Guerrini

"Johnson Took Trip without his Doctor or Code on Plane," New York Times, September 9, 1964

Letter to the Editor, Wall Street Journal, September 17, 1964 by John Sutter

Letter to the Editor, "First Stone," Los Angeles Times, September 21, 1964 by Donald A. Blumenstein

Letter to the Editor, Chicago Tribune, September 24, 1964 by C. Burgwald

Letter to the Editor, Chicago Tribune, September 24, 1964 by W.M.

"Lifeline of a Living Legend," (Tony Schwartz Profile) Impact (NYNEX in-house publication), late 1980s, exact date unknown

"Litter Bit of Fun...Annette Olsen," (Photo caption) The Times Recorder (Zanesfield, Ohio), December 17, 1964

"Maxwell Dane, 98, a Founder of Landmark Ad Agency...," New York Times, August 11, 2004 Stuart Elliott

"The Media Business: Advertising: DDB Worldwide Hopes to Build on Legacy...," New York Times, June 1, 1999 by Stuart Elliott

"Media Expert Tony Schwartz: A Potent Ally of the PBA," New York's Finest (publication), September-October, 1981 by Miguel Ongay

"Meet Doyle Dane's Bernbach," Newsweek, June 8, 1964

"Morton Lays TV Ads on Bomb to Johnson," New York Times, September 17, 1964

"Musical Swapshop," Audio-Record, March 1951

"The Nuclear Issue," Time, September 25, 1964

"O'Brien and Aides Spark Party Hunt for Men, Funds," Washington Post, September 29, 1968 by Walter Pincus

"The Outlook Interview: Television Commentator, Bill Moyers..." Washington Post, February 26, 1964 by Stephen Banker

"Records Children at Play...," New York Times, June 10, 1956 by Herbert Mitang

"Sound," The New Yorker, November 21, 1964

"Spotting the Candidates," Newsweek, September 21, 1964

"Tape Master," Audio magazine, March 1994 by David Lander

"Tape, Talent and Imagination," Better Listening, date unknown, by Robert Angus

"Threats and Responses; Antiwar Group Reprises 'Daisy' Ad," New York Times, January 17, 2003

"Tony Schwartz, Genius," Communication Arts, September-October, 1998 by Mill Roseman

"The Unconscious of a Conservative: A Special Issue on the Mind of Barry Goldwater," Fact, September-October, 1964 (Vol. 1 / Issue 5), edited and published by Ralph Ginzburg

"A Vote for Goldwater," Washington Post (and syndicated), October 30, 1964 by John Chamberlain

"When the Client is a Candidate," New York Times Magazine, October 25, 1964 by Pete Hamill

"The Woman Behind Barry Goldwater," Good Housekeeping, May 1964 by Alvin Toffler

"William Bernbach Advocate of the Soft Sell in Advertising, Dies at 71," New York Times, October 3, 1982 by Robert D. McFadden

"What is a Political Smear?" Los Angeles Times, September 16, 1964

Ad Age Top 100 People of the Century
A fun and informative inventory of media movers and shakers with DDB's William Bernbach clocking in at number 1.

Center for American History (University of Texas at Austin) Repository of Aaron Ehrlich's personal papers and other fascinating documents.

Doyle, Dane and Bernbach (now DDB Worldwide)
Advertising firm that produced the Daisy ad for the Democratic National Committee in 1964.

1964 Election Results

The Living Room Candidate
An excellent collection of presidential campaign advertising presented by the American Museum of the Moving Image.

The Lyndon Baines Johnson Presidential Library and Museum
This presidential library—part of the National Archives—houses the records of President Lyndon B. Johnson including a treasure trove of the chief executive's recorded conversations.

"Origins of DDB"
A history of the advertising agency.

Tony Schwartz Official Site
Advertising guru who contributed to the creation of the Daisy ad.

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